索回油轮遭美英拒绝,伊朗最后耐心已耗光,世界迎来新核武大国

时间:2019-08-05 来源:www.phiphi-hotel.com

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根据俄罗斯网站今天7月7日的一份报告,联合王国没收伊朗超级油轮的问题仍未得到解决,中东局势将迎来真正的挑战。德黑兰宣布将在2015年核协议规定的3.67%限制范围内增加铀浓缩活动,并警告说,如果欧洲伙伴国家不履行其承诺,伊朗将进一步减少其铀浓缩活动。伊朗副外长阿拉吉表示,伊朗将把铀浓缩活动提高到布什尔核电站运行所需的水平,达到要求的5%。

俄罗斯驻维也纳国际组织代表乌里亚诺夫周日表示,俄罗斯理解伊朗行动的原因,但敦促德黑兰不采取可能使核协议复杂化的行动。

分析师表示,此举是伊朗企图向欧洲施加压力以履行其承诺。根据2015年达成的伊朗核协议,伊朗允许铀浓缩水平为3.67%,这足以用于核能发电,但远不及制造核武器所需核武器的约90%。

伊朗的铀浓缩工作是断断续续的,但现在专家普遍认为,如果伊朗退出核协议,它就能生产出足以制造核武器的高浓缩铀,届时世界将迎来新的核电。

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1.什么是浓缩铀?

Uranium can fuel nuclear power plants and nuclear bombs because some of its isotopes or atomic forms are fissile: their atoms can be easily split, releasing energy. The newly mined uranium contains more than 99% of an isotope called uranium 238. This isotope is not fissile, and a small fraction of uranium 235 is fissile. Uranium enrichment is an industrial process to increase the proportion of uranium 235. This is usually done by passing uranium gas through a centrifuge that rotates at high speed. This process filters out U-235, which is lighter than U-238. Commercial nuclear power plants use low enriched uranium fuel, which contains 3-5% uranium 235. Further processing can produce highly enriched uranium containing more than 20% U-235.

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2. What is the relationship between enriched uranium and nuclear weapons?

The same technology is also used for uranium enrichment of nuclear or nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons usually contain uranium 235 or higher uranium with a purity of 80%, ie weapon-grade uranium. Nuclear weapons can also be powered by helium, but Iran needs to irradiate uranium fuel in the Arak nuclear reactor and build an additional facility to separate plutonium from spent fuel. At present, Iran's uranium enrichment work constitutes a more direct risk. Both nuclear energy and nuclear weapons rely on nuclear chain reactions to release energy, but in different ways.

Commercial nuclear power plants use low enriched uranium fuel and various design elements to produce a slow nuclear chain reaction that produces a steady stream of energy. In nuclear weapons, specially designed explosives put enough weapons-grade uranium or plutonium together to create an extremely fast chain reaction that produces an explosion. Making nuclear weapons is not just about making highly enriched uranium or plutonium, but experts generally believe that this is the most time-consuming step. It is also the easiest stage for outsiders to see, so it is an important indicator of national progress.

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3. How good is Iran in uranium enrichment?

xx伊朗的铀浓缩工作是间歇性的,但现在专家们普遍认为,如果伊朗退出核协议,它就能生产出足以制造核武器的高浓缩铀。这些努力始于20世纪80年代后期伊朗与伊拉克发生血腥战争。第一批离心机和设计由巴基斯坦核科学家Abdul Qadeer Khan提供。这些机器的质量非常差,通常是二手的,而且常常会失败。据报道,美国和以色列开展了包括网络攻击在内的间谍活动,进一步削弱了伊朗的铀浓缩能力。

伊朗在生产更先进的离心机方面仍存在技术问题。尽管如此,在2015年达成协议之前的几年里,伊朗的表现已经有了充分的改善,观察人士普遍认为伊朗可以为核武器项目生产足够的材料。 2015年达成的协议限制了伊朗的研发活动以限制进一步的进展,但伊朗已经在测试这些限制的法律界限。

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4.伊朗核协议如何限制伊朗的活动?

该协议限制了伊朗铀的浓缩程度和浓度。该报告还详述了伊朗可以储存多少浓缩铀,可以使用多少台离心机,它使用何种类型的离心机,以及可以进行哪些研究和开发活动。

所有这些限制旨在阻止伊朗科学家在不到一年的时间内积累足够的高浓缩铀,以制造核武器大约10到30公斤(22到65磅),这取决于装置的设计和炸弹制造者的技术和经验。如果伊朗决定发展核武器,国际社会将有足够的时间作出回应。该协议还限制了伊朗的钚分离研究,并要求伊朗接受国际原子能机构的检查